Python operators are symbols that perform operations on operands, such as variables and values. Python supports various types of operators, including arithmetic, comparison, assignment, logical, identity, membership, and bitwise operators.

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical operations.

– Addition `+`

– Subtraction `-`

– Multiplication `*`

– Division `/`

– Modulus `%`

– Exponentiation `**`

– Floor Division `//`

“`python

# Addition

result_addition = 10 + 5 # Result: 15

# Subtraction

result_subtraction = 10 – 5 # Result: 5

# Multiplication

result_multiplication = 10 * 5 # Result: 50

# Division

result_division = 10 / 5 # Result: 2.0

# Modulus

result_modulus = 10 % 3 # Result: 1

# Exponentiation

result_exponentiation = 2 ** 3 # Result: 8

# Floor Division

result_floor_division = 10 // 3 # Result: 3

“`

Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

– `=`

– `+=`

– `-=`

– `*=`

– `/=`

– `%=`

– `//=`

– `**=`

“`python

x = 10 # Assigns the value 10 to x

x += 5 # Equivalent to x = x + 5

x -= 3 # Equivalent to x = x – 3

x *= 2 # Equivalent to x = x * 2

x /= 4 # Equivalent to x = x / 4

x %= 3 # Equivalent to x = x % 3

x //= 2 # Equivalent to x = x // 2

x **= 3 # Equivalent to x = x ** 3

“`

Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare values.

– Equal to `==`

– Not equal to `!=`

– Greater than `>`

– Less than `<`

– Greater than or equal to `>=`

– Less than or equal to `<=`

“`python

x = 5

y = 10

print(x == y) # False

print(x != y) # True

print(x > y) # False

print(x < y) # True

print(x >= y) # False

print(x <= y) # True

“`

Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

– `and`

– `or`

– `not`

“`python

x = True

y = False

print(x and y) # False

print(x or y) # True

print(not x) # False

“`

Identity Operators

Identity operators are used to compare the memory locations of two objects.

– `is`

– `is not`

“`python

x = [“apple”, “banana”]

y = [“apple”, “banana”]

z = x

print(x is z) # True

print(x is y) # False

print(x is not y) # True

“`

Membership Operators

Membership operators in Python are used to test whether a value or variable is found within a sequence, such as strings, lists, tuples, or sets. Python provides two membership operators: `in` and `not in`. These operators return a Boolean value (`True` or `False`) based on whether the specified value exists in the given sequence.

Here’s a brief explanation of both membership operators:

1. **`in` Operator:**

– The `in` operator checks if a value exists in a sequence.

– It returns `True` if the value is found in the sequence.

– Otherwise, it returns `False`.

– Example:

“`python

my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

print(3 in my_list) # Output: True

print(6 in my_list) # Output: False

“`

2. **`not in` Operator:**

– The `not in` operator checks if a value does not exist in a sequence.

– It returns `True` if the value is not found in the sequence.

– Otherwise, it returns `False`.

– Example:

“`python

my_string = “hello”

print(‘e’ not in my_string) # Output: False

print(‘x’ not in my_string) # Output: True

“`

“`python

x = [“apple”, “banana”]

print(“banana” in x) # True

print(“orange” not in x) # True

“`

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Membership operators are commonly used when you need to search for specific elements in collections like lists, tuples, strings, and sets. They provide a convenient way to check for the presence or absence of elements within these sequences, allowing for concise and readable code.

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